Chronic Periodontitis as a Risk Factor for Acute Myocardial Infarction

I.S. GOMES-FILHO1, J. COELHO2, J. PASSOS1, N. FARIAS1,C. FREITAS1,E. CERQUEIRA1, S. CRUZ3, S. TRINDADE1, and M. BARRETO4,1Feira de Santana State University, Feira de Santana – Bahia, Brazil2Biological Science, Feira de Santana State University, Feira de Santana, Brazil3Vale do São Francisco Federal University, Petrolina, Brazil, 4Bahia Federal University, Salvador, Brazil
The relationship between periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarct has been investigated, but without conclusive results. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of the risk of acute myocardial infarct among patients with periodontal disease. Method: A case-control study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A total of 621 subjects, 207 cases, 207 hospital controls and 207 community controls were selected. The cases with proven clinical and laboratory diagnoses of a first acute myocardial infarct event and controls without any history of acute myocardial infarct were matched according to sex and age. All the cases and controls underwent: a) complete periodontal examination; b) lipid and blood glucose profile tests; c) weight, height and hip and waist circumference measurements; d) questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle habit conditions. The chi-square test was used in the descriptive analysis to compare proportions. To estimate the association, multivariate conditional logistic regression was used, and odds ratio measurements adjusted according to a series of potential confounders were obtained. Results: Among the individuals with periodontal disease, the chance of presenting acute myocardial infarct was greater than among those without periodontal disease, both for the community controls (ORcrude = 1.57; 95% CI [0.98-2.52]) and for the hospital controls (ORcrude = 1.73; 95% CI [1.11-2.72]). After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habit, schooling level and blood glucose level, this chance increased for both groups: community controls (ORadjusted = 1.89; 95% CI [1.11-3.28]) and hospital controls (ORadjusted = 1.92; 95% CI [1.14-3.23]). The fraction of the risk of acute myocardial infarct attributable to periodontal disease was around 12%. Conclusions: The findings from this study indicate that periodontal disease contributed independently to an important proportion of the occurrences of acute myocardial infarct in the study population.

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