Efficacy of Periodontal Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Advanced Periodontitis

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(1) The HERS, (2) ERM, (3) Dental follicle, (4...

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Periodontitis is the most common cause for tooth loss in adults and advanced types affect 10-15% of adults worldwide. The attempts to save tooth and regenerate the periodontal apparatus including cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone reach to the dental tissue-derived stem cell therapy. Although there have been several periodontitis models suggested, the apical involvement of tooth root is especially challenging to be regenerated and dental stem cell therapy for the state has never been investigated. Three kinds of dental tissue-derived adult stem cells (aDSCs) were obtained from the extracted immature molars of beagle dogs (n = 8),and ex vivo expanded periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs),dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and periapical follicular stem cells (PAFSCs) were transplanted into the apical involvement defect. As for the lack of cementum-specific markers, anti-human cementum protein 1 (rhCEMP1) antibody was fabricated and the aDSCs and the regenerated tissues were immunostained with anti-CEMP1 antibody. Autologous PDLSCs showed the best regenerating capacity of periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum as well as peripheral nerve and blood vessel, which were evaluated by conventional and immune histology, 3D micro-CT, and clinical index. The rhCEMP1 was expressed strongest in PDLSCs and in the regenerated periodontal ligament space. We suggest here the PDLSCs as the most favorable candidate for the clinical application among the three dental stem cells and can be used for treatment of advanced periodontitis where tooth removal was indicated in the clinical cases.

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